Recent advances in understanding the pathobiobiology of the plasma cell dyscrasias is allowing for better comprehension of this diverse group of disorders. In the process of understanding some of the basic genetic events that lead to plasma cell oncogenesis, a surprising finding is the similar molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis that unify these disorders. The clinical and biologic.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the proliferation of malignant cells in the bone marrow (Porth, 2009). Also known as plasma cell myeloma, myelomatosis, medullary plasmacytosis or Kahler’s disease, MM results from the development of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (referred to as an M-protein), a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain, or both (Ferreira, 2013).
Primary systemic amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the accumulation of excess free immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs) as amyloid. One of the diagnostic features of.
MULTIPLE MYELOMA Multiple myeloma is the most serious and prevalent plasma cell dyscrasia, affecting approximately four of 100 000 Americans each year (Table 21-2). The median age at onset is 60 years, and black persons are affected twice as often as white persons. Symptoms usually result from lytic bone disease, anemia, renal failure, and immunodeficiency.
Present clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria permit a more accurate diagnosis and closer follow-up of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. A ten-year follow-up of a group of 423 patients showed that the indications for and the adjustment of treatment are more precise when these criteria are summarized into profiles based on each diagnostic category. M components may be an indication of.
Multiple myeloma cells are abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) that build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body. Normal plasma cells make antibodies to help the body fight infection and disease. As the number of multiple myeloma cells increases, more antibodies are made. This can cause the blood to thicken and keep the bone marrow from making enough.
Characterization of Plasma Cell Dyscrasias. Characterization panels comprise the use of core markers to consistently identify the population of study in all tubes and other markers for characterization and classification of the cells in a specific disease entity.
In plasma cell disorders, one clone of plasma cells multiplies uncontrollably. As a result, this clone produces vast amounts of a single antibody (monoclonal antibody) known as the M-protein. In some cases (such as with monoclonal gammopathies), the antibody produced is incomplete, consisting of only light chains or heavy chains (functional antibodies normally consist of two pairs of two.